EUVHS_IO1_Toolkit_EN

The European Commission's support for the production of this publication does not constitute an endorsement of the contents, which reflect the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. Project Number: 2020-1-DE03-KA226-SCH-093410 IO1: Virtual Schooling Toolkit for school leadership teams and teachers

The European Commission's support for the production of this publication does not constitute an endorsement of the contents, which reflect the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. Project Number: 2020-1-DE03-KA226-SCH-093410 Contents Consortium................................................................................................................1 Project Information..................................................................................................3 Introduction to the project and Toolkit .................................................................4 Section 1: Pedagogical Framework on virtual schooling ......................................6 1.1 Evidence-based practices for online teaching........................................................... 6 1.2 Methodology of online teaching and learning ........................................................ 11 Phase 1. Analysing ...................................................................................................................... 13 Phase 2. Designing ...................................................................................................................... 17 Phase 3. Developing ................................................................................................................... 24 Phase 4. Implementing .............................................................................................................. 26 Phase 5. Evaluating..................................................................................................................... 27 Section 2: Virtual Schooling checklist ...................................................................31 2.1. Overview ..................................................................................................................... 31 2.2 Content areas of Virtual Schooling readiness checklist ........................................ 33 Area A: Leadership ..................................................................................................................... 34 Area B: Collaboration and Communication ............................................................................. 35 Area C: Infrastructure and Equipment..................................................................................... 37 Area D: Continuing Professional Development (CPD) [1] ....................................................... 39 Area D: Continuing Professional Development (CPD) [2] ....................................................... 40 Area E: Teaching and Learning: Support and Resources ........................................................ 42 Area F: Teaching and Learning: Implementation.................................................................... 44 Area G: Online assessment practices ....................................................................................... 46 Area H: Learner Digital Competence ........................................................................................ 48 Section 3: Best practices ........................................................................................50 Category 1: Online repositories....................................................................................... 52 Best Practice 1: Teaching with Europeana............................................................................... 53 Best Practice 2: Learning Corner............................................................................................... 54 Best Practice 3: ICT-REV.............................................................................................................. 56

The European Commission's support for the production of this publication does not constitute an endorsement of the contents, which reflect the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. Project Number: 2020-1-DE03-KA226-SCH-093410 Best Practice 4: dida - LABS ....................................................................................................... 58 Best Practice 5: Lehrerbüro....................................................................................................... 59 Best Practice 6: Khan Academy................................................................................................. 60 Best Practice 7: Photodentro..................................................................................................... 61 Category 2: Digital tools and software ........................................................................... 63 Best Practice 1: Go-Lab............................................................................................................... 64 Best Practice 2: Edmodo............................................................................................................. 66 Best Practice 3: Graasp .............................................................................................................. 68 Best Practice 4: SCUOLAB .......................................................................................................... 70 Best Practice 5: edMondo .......................................................................................................... 72 Best Practice 6: Padlet ............................................................................................................... 73 Best Practice 7: Kahoot! ............................................................................................................. 74 Best Practice 8: Mentimeter ...................................................................................................... 75 Best Practice 9: Storyboard ....................................................................................................... 76 Best Practice 10: Microsoft teams ............................................................................................ 77 Best Practice 11: LearningApps – interactive learning modules ........................................... 78 Best Practice 12: Ellinopoula ..................................................................................................... 80 Category 3: Monitoring and Evaluation ......................................................................... 82 Best Practice 1: Task................................................................................................................... 83 Best Practice 2: The Digital Competence Wheel ...................................................................... 85 Best Practice 3: Smart School .................................................................................................... 86 Category 4: Guidelines for online teaching, learning, and assessment ..................... 88 Best Practice 1: Better Internet for Kids .................................................................................. 89 Best Practice 2: EL-STEM: Enlivened Laboratories within STEM Education. ......................... 91 Best Practice 3: Virtual Teachers’ Toolbox ............................................................................... 93 Best Practice 4: PATHS a Philosophical Approach to THinking Skills .................................... 95 Best Practice 5: Episodi di Apprendimento Situato (EAS - Situated Learing) ....................... 97 Category 5: Training/MOOCs and professional development ..................................... 99 Best Practice 1: Digital Literacy and Online Safety: How the Pandemic Tested Our Skills .................................................................................................................................................... 100 Best Practice 2: Netzwerk Digitale Bildung ........................................................................... 102

The European Commission's support for the production of this publication does not constitute an endorsement of the contents, which reflect the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. Project Number: 2020-1-DE03-KA226-SCH-093410 Best Practice 3: Outschool ....................................................................................................... 104 Section 4: Step-by-step guide on virtual schooling............................................106 Step 1: Curriculum alignment........................................................................................ 107 Step 2: Assessment ......................................................................................................... 108 Step 3: Teaching and learning strategies ..................................................................... 109 Step 4: Infrastructure needs and adaptations ............................................................ 110 Step 5: Timelines, scheduling, and ongoing monitoring ............................................ 111 Step 6: Continuous evaluation and support ................................................................ 112 Step 7: Support for teachers, learners, and parents/guardians ............................... 113 Step 8: Privacy, health, well-being for teachers and learners................................... 114 Glossary .................................................................................................................116 References.............................................................................................................118

1 The European Commission's support for the production of this publication does not constitute an endorsement of the contents, which reflect the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. Project Number: 2020-1-DE03-KA226-SCH-093410 Consortium Partner 1 (Coordinator): AKADEMIE KLAUSENHOF gGmbH- Germany Partner 2: CENTRE FOR ADVANCEMENT OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT IN EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY LTD (CARDET)- Cyprus Partner 3: CENTRO PER LO SVILUPPO CREATIVO DANILO DOLCI (CSC)- Italy

2 The European Commission's support for the production of this publication does not constitute an endorsement of the contents, which reflect the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. Project Number: 2020-1-DE03-KA226-SCH-093410 Partner 4: DOUKA EKPAIDEFTIRIA AE - PALLADION LYKEION EKFPAIDEUTHRIA DOUKA- Greece Partner 5: SPECTRUM RESEARCH CENTRE CLG (SRC)- Ireland Partner 6: UNIVERSITY OF NICOSIA (UNIC)- Cyprus

3 The European Commission's support for the production of this publication does not constitute an endorsement of the contents, which reflect the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. Project Number: 2020-1-DE03-KA226-SCH-093410 Project Information Project Title A framework for the design and implementation of European Virtual ScHoolS Project acronym EUVHS Project number 2020-1-DE03-KA226-SCH-093410 Beneficiary organisation (Project Coordinator) Akademie Klausenhof Project partners ● P2: CARDET, CY/ Cyprus ● P3: CSC, IT/Italy ● P4: DOUKAS SCHOOL, GR/Greece ● P5: SRC, IE/Ireland ● P6: UNIC, CY/Cyprus

4 The European Commission's support for the production of this publication does not constitute an endorsement of the contents, which reflect the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. Project Number: 2020-1-DE03-KA226-SCH-093410 Introduction to the project and Toolkit Digital technologies are massively integrated into school curricula over the last decade, to provide seamless online learning experiences, overcoming physical barriers (OECD, 2019; EUA, 2019). During the eruption of COVID-19 pandemic, means of distance communication were imposed in every domain and the integration of digital technology was accelerated. As a result, educational organisations and institutions were forced to adopt online and distance learning practices to accommodate teaching and learning to fit the new context. Most schools across Europe, though, were asked to achieve such change overnight, without being ready or having strategic measures universally applied. In this context, a consortium of six (6) partners, from five (5) European countries, which cover a wide range of expertise, came together to implement a project that will meet the needs of European schools and their teachers, leadership teams, learning designers, educational technologists, support staff, students, and their parents. Specifically, the project “EUVHS: A framework for the design and implementation of European Virtual ScHoolS” aims to develop school leaders and teachers’ capacities to design and deliver online education with improved digital skills and strategic actions in place. Following the directives of the European Commission and the respective Digital Education Action plan 2021-2027, the partnership will collaborate over a period of 24 months (01/05/2021- 30/04/2023) to deliver the following: ⮚ IO1: Virtual Schooling Toolkit for School leadership teams and teachers. The aim of this deliverable is to design and develop a toolkit which will act as a powerful tool for schools and teachers and support them to adopt online education. The Toolkit consists of resources, pedagogical material, case studies, practical tips, and a collection of OERs activities that can be adapted and adopted to learn how to teach online in secondary education, with some recommendations for primary education. ⮚ IO2: Training Course for School Leadership Teams, Teachers, and Staff. The aim of this deliverable is to design a training course for teachers and school leadership teams to prepare them to integrate online education in their practices. The focus will be on the basic elements they will need to be able to effectively design, develop and implement innovative and interactive eLearning courses to secondary school students. ⮚ IO3: Training course for students on how to be effective online learners. The aim of this deliverable is to design a course that will support high school students become effective online learners. Research shows that students do not necessarily know how to learn online. Therefore, they need training and support to be productive and learn online effectively. The partners will also prepare a simple checklist/self-assessment for online learners to allow them to reflect on their readiness to take online courses.

5 The European Commission's support for the production of this publication does not constitute an endorsement of the contents, which reflect the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. Project Number: 2020-1-DE03-KA226-SCH-093410 ⮚ IO4: eLearning platform and OERs on Virtual Schooling. The main objective of this deliverable is to provide an online space that will host the courses, OERs, and the Toolkit in an online format for those who wish to develop their skills in online education. Interested individuals can register, free of charge, without specific entrance prerequisites, attend the courses and learn through a self-paced mode. The current document encompasses the Toolkit and constitutes the first deliverable of the project. The consortium has gathered relevant material through a systematic review of the national and European literature, in the field of distance and online secondary education while conducting online surveys in each partner country. The Toolkit is structured as follows: ➢ Section 1: Pedagogical framework on virtual schooling: A detailed outline of strategies, guidelines, tips, and a concrete methodology that can be followed when teaching online, from the design to the actual delivery of the courses. It includes a pedagogical framework with recommendations based on the DigCompEdu and TPACK models. ➢ Section 2: Virtual Schooling readiness checklist: A checklist adapted by the European Commission’s SELFIE tool and the TET-SAT, for school leaders and teachers to measure their readiness in integrating distance learning. ➢ Section 3: Best practices: A collection of 30 best practices which are tools/platforms, initiatives, projects, and resources in the field of online/distance education. ➢ Section 4: Step-by-step guide on virtual schooling: A simple practical guide for systemically addressing virtual schooling, covering the following topics: • Curriculum alignment • Assessment • Teaching and learning strategies • Infrastructure needs and adaptations • Timelines, scheduling, and ongoing monitoring • Continuous evaluation and support • Support for teachers, learners and parents. • Privacy, health, well-being for teachers and learners The content of the Toolkit will guide school leader, teachers, learning designers, developers, researchers, support staff, to adopt a strategy for applying virtual schooling practices.

6 The European Commission's support for the production of this publication does not constitute an endorsement of the contents, which reflect the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. Project Number: 2020-1-DE03-KA226-SCH-093410 Section 1: Pedagogical Framework on virtual schooling The results from the desk and field research conducted in each partner country direct toward a pedagogical framework that can be used as a reference for effective design and implementation of online learning curricula. The framework is presented in two sections; the first one refers to strategic actions that can be taken by school leaders, in collaboration with teachers and staff whereas the second one refers to a detailed methodology on how to design and deliver successful online learning based on the DigCompEdu and TPACK models. 1.1 Evidence-based practices for online teaching To deliver effective remote teaching programmes, researchers underline the importance of following a systemic approach. It has been found out that the systemic approach should include the collective development of an action plan for the implementation of online learning, based on an appropriate legal framework (Nisiforou et al., 2021). This plan involves monitoring, reviewing, and evaluating the processes followed across all stages. The instructional design, technological design, financial planning, organizational design, and assessment methodology are five important steps of a pedagogical design (Anastasiades et

7 The European Commission's support for the production of this publication does not constitute an endorsement of the contents, which reflect the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. Project Number: 2020-1-DE03-KA226-SCH-093410 al., 2010). As far as the curricula are concerned, they need to be aligned with the possibilities and restrictions of distance education. For instance, the content and the materials must be delivered in suitable formats (Nisiforou et al., 2021) while being friendly to the online environment (Sofianidis et al., 2021). To prepare, review and evaluate programmes, it is recommended that a coordination team of leaders, teachers, support staff, and parents is established, to collaborate at all levels. Additionally, students’ unions formed extensively, can support efficiency of such coordination: the challenges and their needs are immediately spotted and voiced. Along with that, collaboration with external stakeholders such as other schools, universities, research centers/teams, policymakers, businesses, NGOs, parents’, and teachers’ unions needs to be established. Reciprocal interaction unveils challenges and issues, and promotes the exchange of concerns, ideas, and good practices. Having signed partnerships with local and/or international providers (e.g., Microsoft), provides support for moving courses online. Strong cooperation with funding agencies/organisations may tackle obstacles related to budget restrictions. From the emergency remote teaching period, imposed by the outbreak of the pandemic, it is evident that secondary education students coming from stable financial background (e.g., middle to upper class families), benefit from high-speed internet, adequate tools/devices, and a proper, quiet place to study at home (Sofianidis et al., 2021). As a result, they are in an advantageous position to have more successful learning experiences. Nevertheless, many secondary school students lack such access to a personal device, jeopardizing their right to education. For distance learning to be successful, specific measures for equity should be in place, to minimise the digital divide. First, individual access to digital devices should be ensured for all those involved, including students, teachers, parents, policymakers, and leaders (Nisiforou et al., 2021), no matter their financial and social status (Tzimopoulos et al., 2021). This need has been accelerated during the pandemic and, generally, in the last six years through the Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) policy. As noted by many researchers having adequate and reliable infrastructure is important to support virtual education. On the one hand, this includes reliable internet connection, materials, devices, tools, and resources that facilitate distance learning (Hall et al., 2020). For instance, in Piano Scuola, in Italy, all low-income families can have access to vouchers for purchasing digital devices for virtual schooling. On the other hand, equity can be established through a universal provision of technical support and training to students and staff. Training can have the form of both pre-service and in-service training (Sofianidis et al., 2021). Evagorou and Nisiforou (2020) pinpoint that pre-service teacher need to learn how to use effective online teaching methodologies during their initial training. This is particularly crucial for STEM courses that should promote the application of inquiry-based approaches, experimentation, and reflection (Evagorou & Nisiforou, 2020). In addition to that, preparation programmes should provide ample opportunities for engagement with online training and digital technologies.

8 The European Commission's support for the production of this publication does not constitute an endorsement of the contents, which reflect the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. Project Number: 2020-1-DE03-KA226-SCH-093410 This way, teachers will learn how to teach online by becoming online students themselves, experiencing firsthand both the effective and the most challenging scenarios of online education. Furthermore, teacher training in virtual, online education should be compulsory (Nisiforou et al., 2021), since schools require bespoke expertise to ensure that the use of technology is achieving the desired impact. In this sense, the content of the training should explore both technological (e.g., tools, technical issues, etc.) and pedagogical dimensions (e.g., approaches, resources, etc.), including methodologies of online teaching. Additional emphasis should be given on the development of teachers’ digital competences. Based on lessons learned from the remote teaching period during the COVID-19 outbreak, there is a major concern about teachers’ skills and familiarity toward the integration and use of eLearning tools that support the transition to an online environment (Sofianidis et al., 2021). Lack of digital skills can have a negative impact on the learners’ attitudes toward online learning and its effectiveness (Perifanou & Economides, 2021). In any case, training should be relevant to the participants’ needs with emphasis on how to purposefully exploit technologies to transform learning and make it student-centered: authentic, collaborative, constructive, meaningful. Online classroom management techniques should be taught and eventually adopted. The professional development training (in-service) could have various forms such as online games (Vrasidas & Solomou, 2013). Other than explicit training, though, it is significant to enhance the collaboration among teachers. It is worth mentioning that teachers’ participation in communities of practice, to co-design and share learning material, teaching methods, and best practices with each other can facilitate the implementation of online teaching (Nisiforou et al., 2021). Similarly, it seems that teachers participating in online communities of practice favour sharing teaching material with each other (Kosmas, 2017). Most teachers are motivated to engage with such practice due to the possibility of finding educational content prepared by other teachers or sharing what they have designed on their own. This on-the job aid is beneficial to teachers and serves as a method of indirect professional development to improve their teaching methods. Apart from teachers, support should also be provided to parents/guardians and learners. Researchers report that schools are responsible for facilitating an ongoing communication with learners and parents at home (Nisiforou et al., 2021). This way, we bridge the gap that emerges from physical distancing. Furthermore, communication and collaboration should exist between the education community and the authorities, such as the Ministry of Education. This kind of interaction constantly provides insights into the current state and

9 The European Commission's support for the production of this publication does not constitute an endorsement of the contents, which reflect the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. Project Number: 2020-1-DE03-KA226-SCH-093410 situation that learners, teachers, and parents are experiencing (Sofianidis et al., 2021). As a result, there are opportunities to eliminate obstacles related to lack of digital skills (e.g., provide relevant training), infrastructure, and (social) inequalities. In addition to the training and development of digital skills, measures for equity should include the incorporation of assistive technologies/resources for special education, the implementation of data protection systems and emotional support mechanisms. The use of technology along with the absence of physical interaction highlight the importance of tackling issues of data protection and emotional health. Researchers mention that students are concerned about the lack of socialisation with their classmates and the lack of human contact during online learning, as seen from the nationwide school shutdowns due to COVID19 (Sofianidis et al., 2021). We should ensure that specific measures are taken for the provision of psychological support such as services inside and outside school, provided by a team of experts (e.g., psychologists) and actions that cultivate appropriate usage of technologies. Additionally, teachers should be trained on how to spot mental health issues such as any signs of stress that students may experience (Sofianidis et al., 2021). This way they can develop actions that foster mental health across the student and educational community. Therefore, the strategic plans should focus on schools’ social dimension, strengthening its connection with the society (Nisiforou et al., 2021). In virtual education, the learning experience should be designed to fit the capabilities and barriers of the online context. Given that participation in virtual learning is technologymediated and there is a lack of physical interaction, we should foster learners’ participation, engagement, and overall motivation. When teaching is focused on lecturing and there is lack of student-to-student cooperation, discussion, and interaction, students might be unable to concentrate over a long period of time (Sofianidis et al., 2021). To avoid the application of such traditional, teacher-centered methodologies, teachers must be properly prepared to teach virtually, exploiting online pedagogies (Sofianidis et al., 2021). Examples of modern and innovative pedagogies include group work, peer-to-peer feedback (mediated by the teacher, as needed), self-reflection, interdisciplinarity, simulations, online games, online laboratories, personalised, differentiated, and adaptive instruction. All these should promote the establishment and maintenance of an online learning community. It is worth mentioning that alternative forms of assessment should be present (e.g., self- and peer-assessment, rubrics, portfolios) along with immediate feedback, to strengthen students’ online participation (Sofianidis et al., 2021). For this reason, we need to (re)design the curricula to have the modern methods as the backbone of teaching, focusing on cultivating students’

10 The European Commission's support for the production of this publication does not constitute an endorsement of the contents, which reflect the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. Project Number: 2020-1-DE03-KA226-SCH-093410 digital competence. For guidance, we can consult the DigComp framework1 developed by the European Commission, a tool aiming to build citizens’ digital competence. Gradually, students’ self-regulation of learning, when using technologies, will also be promoted. 1 https://publications.jrc.ec.europa.eu/repository/handle/JRC106281

11 The European Commission's support for the production of this publication does not constitute an endorsement of the contents, which reflect the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. Project Number: 2020-1-DE03-KA226-SCH-093410 1.2 Methodology of online teaching and learning Considering that the strategic elements explained in the previous section are in place, following a detailed methodology when designing and delivering online learning experiences will subsequently increase their effectiveness. The existing frameworks and models that can be used as guidance and reference when designing online learning environments vary. Nevertheless, they share common standards. Based on the research conducted, one of the most prominent frameworks, universally applied, is the ADDIE model. The model dictates that the procedure of designing and developing a learning programme/course is reflected on (5) steps, namely the “Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation” (Gagne et al., 2005). Therefore, the EUVHS partnership uses the ADDIE model as a foundation and builds on this a concrete methodology for the implementation of virtual schooling. The complete methodology consists of the five phases of ADDIE, enhanced by specific principles of online learning pedagogy and learning design.

12 The European Commission's support for the production of this publication does not constitute an endorsement of the contents, which reflect the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. Project Number: 2020-1-DE03-KA226-SCH-093410 Furthermore, the partners refer to established frameworks for technology-enhanced learning and digital transformation, such as the TPACK 2and DigCompEdu3. These models primarily refer to face-to-face instruction. In this case, they are adapted, to fit into the online context. Regarding the TPACK model, its earliest formwas proposed in 1986 by Lee Shulman, to combine the content knowledge of the teachers in their teaching subject with the pedagogical knowledge they possess. It was then improved in 2006 with the introduction of the technological competence, representing an optimal framework for the training of teachers, to holistically improve their expertise in technology-enhanced learning. As far as the DigCompEdu model is concerned, it was developed by the European Commission (2017) and outlines six key areas in which educators should exhibit competence when it comes to the digital transformation of learning. To conclude the methodology, apart from these two models, elaborated remarks and tips that derived from the desk and field research are presented. 2 https://educationaltechnology.net/technological-pedagogical-content-knowledge-tpack-framework/ 3 https://ec.europa.eu/jrc/en/publication/eur-scientific-and-technical-research-reports/european-frameworkdigital-competence-educators-digcompedu

13 The European Commission's support for the production of this publication does not constitute an endorsement of the contents, which reflect the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. Project Number: 2020-1-DE03-KA226-SCH-093410 Phase 1. Analysing Based on the ADDIE model, we first need to conduct a thorough analysis of the following: A. The instructional goals. This refers to the overall goal/mission of our instruction and learning. To set a goal, it is important to identify what is missing, the main “problem” for which the instruction will be a solution (e.g., an instruction that will develop students’ linguistic competence). Needs assessment can assist in this process; we analyse results from previous experiences with the students, or identify the requirements needed for a specific programme. B. The instructional method. To achieve the goal set, we need to identify the appropriate methods of instruction. Since there are many instructional strategies in the literature, we need to select those that respond to the characteristics of the subject matter to be taught. The same process includes determining the method of delivery that usually fits the subject (e.g., completely online or blended, self-paced etc.) along with the characteristics, and any limitations of the learning environment that needs to be created. In an online setting, the interaction among the participants takes various forms. The reciprocal communication is based on multiple asynchronous dialogues (e.g., in forums) which are interrupted by short or long breaks in participants’ response time (from some minutes to days). The dialogues

14 The European Commission's support for the production of this publication does not constitute an endorsement of the contents, which reflect the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. Project Number: 2020-1-DE03-KA226-SCH-093410 may continue over a short or long period of time, and they are usually initiated or maintained by experienced participants who take control. Since all dialogues are recorded in the online environment, we can always return and reflect on what has been discussed, providing feedback at multiple occurrences. To establish an online environment that resemble real life and prepare learners for their citizenship, Herrington, and Oliver (2000) analyse the characteristics of Situated Learning Environments: • Students learn in a context/situation that resembles as much as possible the real context/situation where the acquired knowledge and skills will be used. • Authentic learning activities exist. These are based an open-ended, ill-defined problems that students are asked to solve, finding solutions (more than one correct). To achieve this, they adopt multiple roles, investigate interdisciplinary perceptions, and reflect on the steps taken over a long-term period. • Teachers guide and support students across the whole spectrum of learning, to strengthen the construction of knowledge. • Authentic assessment is integrated. These principles can be followed later, during the development of the activities to create authentic online learning environments. C. The learners. The main target audience of instruction, our students, differ with each other in terms of knowledge, skills, (socioeconomic, cultural, linguistic) background, attitudes, preferences, motivation. These characteristics can affect the process of learning. By identifying early on what students know, believe, expect, we can design an intervention that will effectively respond to their needs. We can analyse learners’ distinct characteristics by conducting informal discussions/interviews with them, interviews with their parents and other teachers, pre- exams, and gather both qualitative and quantitative data from previous school years/examinations. To support such evidence, we can consult research work from the literature that includes examples of the most common characteristics our target group exhibit (e.g., teenagers’ attitudes regarding a specific subject or homework). Identifying the skills, knowledge, and attitudes that learners should possess before the new instruction begins, allows for a smooth engagement with the learning process. D. The learning objectives. The whole aim of instruction is for the students to achieve specific learning objectives. These are the skills, knowledge, and attitude they should be able to acquire, after the instruction is completed. Even though setting objectives might seem an easy procedure, we need to be specific and clear. When forming the sentences that describe the learning objectives/outcomes, we can follow the “A.B.C.D. method” (Heinich et al.,1996): • Audience: who the learners are (who should exhibit a skill/knowledge/attitude?). • Behaviour: which task/behaviour the learners should be able to do. Based on the Bloom’s taxonomy, the skills students might possess are classified into six (6)

15 The European Commission's support for the production of this publication does not constitute an endorsement of the contents, which reflect the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. Project Number: 2020-1-DE03-KA226-SCH-093410 categories that reflect the level of cognitive process with which they engage, respectively (from lower-order to higher-order thinking skills): (1) remembering, (2) understanding, (3) applying, (4) analysing, (5) evaluating, (6) creating (Krathwohl, 2002). Specific action-based verbs (see examples here) that fall into each category (depending on the desired skills) can be used to describe the behaviour we want our students to exhibit, upon completion of the instruction. Having measurable verbs allows us to design relevant learning and assessment activities. • Conditions: under which conditions the learners should exhibit the behaviour (e.g., what kind of support tools, references, they can or cannot use) • Degree: how well the learners should exhibit the behaviours (e.g., in terms of speed, accuracy, quality, etc.). Along with that, based on Locke and Latham (2020) and Doran (1981), the learning objectives should be SMART: • Specific • Measurable • Attainable • Relevant • Time-bound Considering the above, the following sentence can be used when setting objectives: “By the time a student finishes this course/lesson, s/he should be able to…” which is completed by adding: • specific verbs that define the student performance [e.g., analyse, describe, evaluate] • words that define the specific conditions [e.g., using an online database, a word processor, without assistance] • words that define the accepted degree of success [e.g., without mistakes in terms of syntax]. To ensure that our students are ready to participate in a digital community of knowledge, the objectives should focus on developing 21st century competences. According to the Council of the European Union, the Eight Key competences for LLL 4are: • Literacy and multilingualism • Numeracy • Digital skills • Metacognition (learning how to learn) 4 https://www.eursc.eu/BasicTexts/2018-09-D-69-en-1.pdf

16 The European Commission's support for the production of this publication does not constitute an endorsement of the contents, which reflect the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. Project Number: 2020-1-DE03-KA226-SCH-093410 • Social, interpersonal skills • Entrepreneurship • Cultural awareness and expression Similarly, the framework for 21st Century Learning5 defines the importance of the following skills: • Life and career skills (flexibility, adjustability, responsibility, productivity, leadership, etc.) • Learning and Innovation Skills (the 4 C’s: critical thinking, communication, collaboration, creativity) • Information, media, and technology skills (digital citizenship) One of the most widely used frameworks for effective technology integration is the TPACK model. In this part, we will propose some practical guidelines on how to use the model as a guide, based on the findings from our research. Based on the model, there are three core areas where educators should exhibit expertise: the Content Knowledge that is the knowledge of the subject field an educator is teaching; the Pedagogical Knowledge which is the knowledge of how one should teach; and the Technology Knowledge which is the knowledge of the tech tools and resources (i.e., how to use them in your professional and everyday life). These areas are then intertwined based on how they influence each other, in an interdisciplinary way: the content-subject can be taught in various ways (Pedagogical Content Knowledge), supported differently from the existing technologies (Technological Content Knowledge). Following these, the pedagogy we choose to apply changes according to the technology we use; some tools are facilitators while others have limited capabilities (Technological Pedagogical Knowledge). Similarly, in the framework of virtual schooling, we must know in depth the subject matter we teach, and which concepts and theories learners should master by a certain age. The focus though should be on identifying the affordances of the subject to be taught, its distinct features and the restrictions imposed (e.g., it is required that we have laboratories to execute experiments, musical instruments, literature texts, etc.), to organise and structure the content accordingly. Then, we should have deep knowledge of the pedagogies that exist, their benefits and limitations in an online environment; specific teaching strategies, methods, approaches (e.g., inquiry-based learning, differentiation and adaptation of instruction, game-based learning, simulation etc.) will allow us to form the online activities and assessment in line with our learning objectives. In this context, the technology will be the backbone of teaching and learning. On the one hand, we should know the way 5 https://www.battelleforkids.org/networks/p21/frameworks-resources

17 The European Commission's support for the production of this publication does not constitute an endorsement of the contents, which reflect the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. Project Number: 2020-1-DE03-KA226-SCH-093410 technology affects online content representation and which tools can support or limit the mastery of the content-related skills (e.g., having digital laboratories, instruments, literature texts, etc.). On the other hand, we should be aware of the tools that support the pedagogy we will follow (e.g., how to establish communication, interaction, online social presence, online learning community, bridging the physical distancing). Thus, we need to adapt existing pedagogical methodologies and digital tools to different learning contexts and students. Phase 2. Designing Having analysed our goal, the instructional methods, the learners, and the context, we are ready to move on to the next step of our methodology, that is the actual design of the learning experience. During the Design phase we: A. Design assessments: The goals and objectives defined during the analysis phase are the compass for the development of the assessment. If we want students to be able to do something, we have to assess the extent to which they possess this ability or not, at the end of the course/lesson. Prior to assessing students, it is important to ensure that they can participate in the chosen assessment; for instance, they can access the online environment, they can collaborate, if needed, they can ask questions, and/or use specific tools. It is also of utmost importance to create a context for the assessment that resembles the actual

18 The European Commission's support for the production of this publication does not constitute an endorsement of the contents, which reflect the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. Project Number: 2020-1-DE03-KA226-SCH-093410 situation where students will perform the expected behaviour (e.g., if we want them to know how to carry out an experiment, a multiple-choice quiz is not a context where this knowledge is actually applied). The assessment needs to be clearly written and the instructions and expectations to be clearly communicated to students (e.g., the length of answer, important points to mention, etc.). Moreover, there should not be purposefully complicated or misleading questions. Like the face-to-face instruction, online assessment can be ongoing/formative (asking students to show/perform the expected behaviour during the instruction) or summative (asking students to show/perform the expected behaviour at the end of the instruction). In each case, it is important to ensure the provision of feedback. Feedback should be prompt, specific, supportive. B. Choose a course format. Since, online learning is delivered via the Internet and relevant technological means, we need to select a Learning Management System (LMS) that will host our lessons/courses. The LMS, having internal and external tools, constitute the online environment. According to Piotrowski (2010), an integrated learning system allows us to: • Create original content or upload ready-made multimodal material • Organise content into a coherent learning course/ programme • Deliver and present content to students (synchronously or asynchronously) • Communicate and collaborate synchronously or asynchronously (e.g., school leaders, teachers-students, parents) • Assess and evaluate within the online classes created through various formats: selfassessment, portfolios, monitoring and tracking of leaners’ progress, etc. The most common features an LMS can possess are the following: • Enrollment and logging in through user authentication • Description of courses/programmes • User profiles with pictures and bios • Calendar to present important dates (e.g., deadlines) • Folders to organise and save files • Multiple formats of files (e.g., audiovisual) to be uploaded • Assignment submission: a space to upload files to be reviewed and graded. The teacher can provide feedback. • Gradebook reflecting students’ progress • Announcements and notifications • Glossary with key terms • Wiki • Databases • Content unlocking

19 The European Commission's support for the production of this publication does not constitute an endorsement of the contents, which reflect the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. Project Number: 2020-1-DE03-KA226-SCH-093410 • Messaging/Chatting • Group formation • Analytics (e.g., logging): history of users’ interaction, time spent on tasks, and actions taken • Search options/ links to external websites C. Create an instructional strategy. This strategy refers to the learning activities with which students will engage, to learn the content of the course and achieve the objectives. The strategy includes the design of all content: reading material, exercises, projects, worksheets, discussions, activities, and assessment that will assist in learning. As suggested by Dick and Carey the instructional strategy includes defining the: • pre instructional activities that will communicate the objectives, motivate students, and show them the relevance of instruction with the real world and their own goals. • presentation of the content that needs to be concise, in line with the objectives, including detailed examples. • learners’ participation, specifically the tasks they will practice and the feedback they will gather. • assessment, including the formative and summative assessment of learners’ skills, attitudes, and satisfaction. • follow-up activities that will allow the leaners to review what they have learned, promoting self-reflection and metacognition. The material includes both the guides and the content/resources for the activities of the lessons. The guides provide an overview of the learning outcomes, the content, and the activities that students will have to complete. Since the students are young, the guides can have the form of a short video introduction. The learning material per se can be selected from existing sources (e.g., OERs, trustworthy websites, previous courses, the same course if it has already been delivered) and can be used as it is or be adapted. In any case, the material needs to be multimodal with audiovisual elements and interactivity (e.g., links to web pages). We can include Virtual/Augmented Reality (AR), three-dimensional (3D) multiuser virtual worlds (VWs), games, digital diagrams/graphics, photographs/images, maps and infographics, posters, rubrics podcasts, among other resources, including printed material (e.g., books). Having collected the so-called “raw” material, we have to refurbish the digital versions of it, organise it and present it using digital tools. To develop the instructional strategy for the online learning experiences, we can refer to the Community of Inquiry (CoI) framework proposed by Garrison, Anderson, and Archer (2001). The framework suggests that to create meaningful experiences based on a socio constructivist approach, we should consider the enhancement of the teachers’ online

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